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Keyword: ‘induced pluripotent stem cells’

“STEM CELL REVOLUTIONS” by Scottish Documentary Institute

July 19th, 2012

STEM CELL REVOLUTIONS” is an informative and engaging documentary recently distributed by the Scottish Documentary Institute. It’s a very useful film to see if you want to learn more about the history of stem cells, and where the clinical, cutting-edge technology is at currently. The documentary gives an overview of international stem cell history, starting with the discovery of stem cells and ending with the newest members of the ever-growing stem cell family. To summarize such a wealth of research, research that has been going on for over half a century, the film tells the story of a few key stem cell discoveries and applications. Each story is described through interviews with stem cell researchers who were directly involved or appeared on the scene later but can knowledgably discuss the event’s impact. The first group of stories is related to adult stem cells (although this is not explicitly stated or explained): the discovery of stem cells during WWII, the amazing rescue of two boys in the early 1980s using stem cell-based skin grafts, and the present-day treatment of blind patients in a stem cell clinic in India. The final group of stories is related to pluripotent stem cells: the discovery of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in mice in 1981 by Martin Evans (it was a treat to see Evans, who won the Nobel Prize in 2007 for the research he discusses in the film!) and of human ESCs (hESCs) in 1998 by Jamie Thomson, present-day use of hESCs to treat patients with retinal disorders in London (although I shuddered a little when Pete Coffee handled a flask of cells without gloves on!), and the creation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by Shinya Yamanaka in 2006.


The science presented in the film is well-explained and even though the focus of the film is on medical breakthroughs accomplished using stem cells, the scientists interviewed do not try to over-hype current stem cell applications. Most helpful in making the technical information accessible are several short, accurate, and intriguing animations (made by Cameron Duguid). During a segment on Yamanaka’s research, one of these animations is particularly useful in explaining how chromatin regulation of gene expression is different in different types of tissues. However, it is repeatedly jarring when the interviews with down-to-earth stem cell scientists, who mostly do not over-hype their research, are bookended by interviews with Margaret Atwood (a writer who is confusingly repeatedly interviewed in a laboratory setting). She makes repeated references to The Fountain of Youth – at odds with the scientists’ messages. Similarly, repeatedly interspersed videos of a topless man doing what looked to be the Brazilian martial art of Capoeira seemed out of place.

Perhaps the only shortcoming of the film, if a bit minor, is that it shies away from getting into some of the nitty-gritty of why iPSCs may be better than hESCs or vice versa, but instead falls back upon the standard argument that hESCs are surrounded by ethical concerns. For a 71-minute-long film, it only makes sense that some issues be simplified, but additional details may have helped viewers better understand this important and hotly-debated topic. Specifically, a lot of the ethical arguments against hESCs are outdated or ill-founded. Probably most importantly, in 2006, Irina Klimanskaya and colleagues found how to isolate hESCs while leaving the donor embryo intact and potentially able to develop normally, weakening the argument against the generation of hESC lines on the grounds that they require the destruction of a potential embryo. Additionally, many researchers use blastocysts that would have been discarded by the in vitro fertilization clinic because the embryos were damaged in some way and would never develop properly. However, a significant strike against using hESCs in treatments, which the film does not touch upon, is the potential for immune rejection. Human iPSCs, on the other hand, are very appealing because they potentially may not have immune rejection problems in treatments, as mentioned in the film. However, human iPSCs are much newer to the stem cell scene and have similarities with cancer cells that researchers should probably better understand before iPSCs are widely used clinically. It is also a little surprising that Jamie Thomson is not mentioned in the human iPSC segment, as his group independently created human iPSCs at the same time as Yamanaka’s group.

The researchers interviewed in the film emphasize the importance of striking a balance between regulation and progress, but then the film seems to not take its own advice and gets bogged down in the regulation of stem cells in the very last segment of the film, when it may have been more useful to focus on the near-future applications of these cells. There’s a surprising focus on the hypothetical ethical arguments that would arise should human iPSCs be made into function eggs and sperm (which has not been done yet, and may not even be possible). However, it may be more useful to first focus on whether human iPSCs can even be successfully used in the clinic before diverting attention to this hypothetical ethical argument, which is much further down the road. It would also have been nice to see a mention of direct reprogramming, the latest stem cell technology that may one day make even iPSCs obsolete.

While there are amazing advances being made with stem cell technology, the film rightly cautions viewers about the dangers of going to a stem cell clinic abroad. A great resource for those considering stem cell treatments abroad is A Closer Look at Stem Cell Treatments, a website made by the reputable International Society for Stem Cell Research.

Overall, “STEM CELL REVOLUTIONS” is a great film for anyone wanting to learn more about the history of stem cells, hear legendary researchers talk about their ground-breaking work and patients talk about how stem cell therapies have changed their lives, and still get a down-to-earth idea of what is realistically being accomplished with these cells.

Bioengineering, Embryonic Stem Cells, Hematopoietic Stem Cells, Reprogramming, Review , , , , ,

Creating Patient-Specific Stem Cells through Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

November 8th, 2010

One of the major hurdles that needs to be overcome in the field of regenerative medicine is the issue of immune rejection, or preventing a patient’s body from
rejecting a tissue transplant from a foreign donor. Consequently, researchers have increasingly focused on ways to regenerate damaged or diseased tissues in a patient by using the patient’s own tissues, which should not trigger an immune response. At this point in time, there are primarily two types of stem cells that hold the greatest promise for use in regenerative medicine where immune rejection is a significant concern: human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and cells made through a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This article will focus on recent SCNT improvements, but we’ll re-visit iPSCs briefly for comparison’s sake.

Caption

Applying Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer in the Creation of Dolly the Cloned Sheep. Dolly the sheep was cloned through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). An adult cell from the mammary gland of a Finn-Dorset ewe acted as the nuclear donor; it was fused with an enucleated egg from a Scottish Blackface ewe, which acted as the cytoplasmic (or egg) donor. An electrical pulse acted to fuse the cells and activate the oocyte after injection into the surrogate mother ewe. A successfully implanted oocyte developed into the lamb Dolly, a clone of the nuclear donor, the Finn-Dorset ewe. SCNT may also be used to create patient-specific stem cells with great therapeutic potential.

Human induced pluripotent stem cells: The history and biology of human iPSCs were explored previously in “Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A New Stem Cell Line with a Long History.” In essence, iPSCs, which were first created with mouse cells in 2006 (Takahashi and Yamanaka, 2006) and then with human cells in 2007 (Yu et al., 2007; Takahashi et al., 2007), are adult cells that have been “reprogrammed” to an embryonic stem cell (ESC) state. This reprogramming is done by forcing adult cells to express proteins that are essential to the ESC identity (by transducing the adult cells with a retrovirus vector that contains the DNA for the key proteins). Consequently, human iPSCs look and behave nearly indistinguishably from hESCs. Like hESCs, iPSCs are pluripotent (they can become any cell type) and proliferate virtually indefinitely, both features which are important for use in regenerative medicine.

However, while great improvements have been made to make this technology closer to the clinic (such as multiple approaches to create iPSCs that do not have the reprogramming genes randomly integrated into their genomes [Yu et al., 2009; Zhou et al., 2009]), and it may someday be used to generate patient-specific ESC-like cells, the technology is not quite there yet. (Other similar technologies, such as “direct reprogramming,” are also being explored for the generation of patient-specific cells, but, again, this approach also has a ways to go.)

Somatic cell nuclear transfer: SCNT technology significantly predates iPSCs, and in many ways formed the basis for the idea of iPSCs. In SCNT, the nucleus from a somatic cell (an adult cell that is not a sperm or egg, i.e. not the gametes) is implanted into an egg, which already had its own nucleus removed. The egg amazingly reprograms the nucleus to become embryonic again; it’s been found that SCNT causes some 10,000 to 12,000 genes to be expressed (turned into protein) that are normally associated only with embryonic development (Niemann et al., 2008). The newly formed embryo (technically called a blastocyst) can then be implanted into a surrogate mother, and potentially become an adult organism. The organism is a clone of the animal that donated the nucleus. Although nuclear transfer studies have been conducted since the late 1930s (primarily in amphibians using nuclei donated from embryos, not adult tissues) (Spemann, 1938), it wasn’t until 1997 that the first widely-accepted successful use of SCNT was reported: Dolly the sheep was born, and she was the first cloned animal from an adult cell, and the first cloned mammal (Wilmut et al., 1997). Since Dolly, several other animals have been successfully cloned, though many problems still remain (the frequency of successful development is relatively low, as SCNT-derived embryos usually result in about 0 to 10% live births) (Wilmut et al., 1997; Wakayama et al., 1998; Solter, 1998; McKinnell and Di Bernardino, 1999; Gurdon and Byrne, 2003, Beyhan and Cibelli, 2008).

Therapeutic cloning: While SCNT has been long-explored for its ability to create cloned animals like Dolly and others (a practice called “reproductive cloning”), SCNT has other very appealing applications that do not involve the creation of an entire animal, such as “therapeutic cloning.” The goal of therapeutic cloning is to use SCNT technology to create patient-specific embryonic stem cells for medical therapies. These much sought-after cells are being labeled nuclear transfer stem cells (NTSCs), but they are essentially ESCs. While using SCNT to clone an entire animal has been fraught with developmental challenges, using SCNT to create NTSCs may be less difficult because it only requires a very early stage embryo, a blastocyst, to be formed (and NTSCs from a blastocyst may be less compromised by developmental abnormalities than an entire animal would be) (Beyhan and Cibelli, 2008). NTSCs have now been created from many different model animals.

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Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells, Reprogramming

Cancer Vaccines: Using Embryonic Tissues and Stem Cells to Vaccinate Against Cancer

May 3rd, 2010

A recently published paper showed that mice with colon cancer can be “vaccinated” with human embryonic stem cells and have a significant immune response against the cancer (Li et al., 2009). This study relates to a big hurdle that needs to be overcome in order to better fight cancer: immune tolerance. The immune system usually fails to detect and attack cancerous tumors, and consequently many cancer treatments are currently being developed that stimulate the immune system to fight back (e.g. the growing field of cancer vaccines).

Antibody and Antigens

Cancerous tumors and embryonic tissues have been found to share many of the same antigens, which are detected by the immune system through antibodies. This group of antigens is called oncofetal antigens. Consequently, animals can be vaccinated with embryonic tissues/cells (most recently done with human embryonic stem cells) and develop an immune response against cancer.

Interestingly, this state of immune tolerance is similar to what happens during pregnancy, and, more specifically, it’s been found that the body’s response to a tumor is very similar to its response to embryonic tissues. While much recent research has not been published in this area, there is actually a long history of studies that show: (1) there is a significant number of antigens shared between tumors and embryonic tissues (called “oncofetal antigens”) and, consequently, antibodies made against tumors can also recognize embryonic tissues, and vice versa; (2) pregnancy confers some immunity against cancer (accompanied by antibody production against oncofetal antigens), not only against its occurrence but also against its growth; (3) similar to pregnancy, an immune response against cancer can be generated by vaccinating animals with embryonic tissues. These studies and the recent re-visitation will be explored below (for a more detailed review, see Brewer et al., 2009).

The first published suggestion that tumors may have an embryonic nature came in the early 1800s (Muller, 1838). Tumors were suspected to be tissues that had been triggered to become embryonic-like again, and it is now generally accepted that tumors are indeed more “embryonic” than the tissues they are derived from, due to the re-expression of embryonic-related genes. By the late 1800s, researchers understood cancer enough to realize that they must better understand normal development in order to better combat cancerous tumors and their embryonic-like cells (Brewer et al., 2009). In the 1880s, these studies shifted focus; the field of immunology was born (from research conducted by Louis Pasteur, at the University of Strasbourg, and Robert Koch, as a medical officer in Poland) and many researchers focused on creating vaccines to cure diseases. Cancer was no exception.
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Cancer Stem Cells, Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , , ,

Chd1 Regulation of Chromatin May be Key for Embryonic Stem Cell Pluripotency

January 10th, 2010

While it is widely accepted that embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have the ability to become any type of cell, the molecular causes for this characteristic are still under much investigation, although one suspected player is chromatin. Recently, more evidence has been reported to support the important role of chromatin structure in maintaining an undifferentiated state in ESCs; the specific protein involved is called Chd1 (Gaspar-Maia et al., 2009).

Caption here

DNA is condensed on histones, creating a structure called chromatin. (Left) A single DNA strand (formed by a sugar-phosphate backbone and nucleotide base-pairs). (Right) Chromatin is the complex formed by histones (green) and DNA (blue); the DNA can be tightly wrapped around the histones. (DNA bound to histones may be inaccessible to the transcription machinery, preventing the transcription of these genes, while unbound DNA allows space for the machinery and the genes may be transcribed.) Chd1 may function in ESCs to maintain chromatin in an open (euchromatin) state and potentially promote pluripotency in this way.

Chromatin structure plays an important role in regulating what genes are created, or expressed, in a given cell. In eukaryote organisms (almost all large organisms, such as animals, plants, and fungi, but not bacteria), DNA forms a complex with proteins that are called histones. This complex of DNA and histones is called chromatin (see figure). Histones act as spools for the DNA to be spun around, binding to DNA and packaging it into tightly coiled units (without histones, the long DNA strands would take up a very large amount of space). Whether the histones bind to the DNA or not can be regulated through chemical modification of the histones (they can be methylated or acetylated). When histones are bound to the DNA, the chromatin is in a condensed state (called heterochromatin) and the genes are not expressed because they cannot be accessed by the gene transcription machinery. However, when the histones are not bound to the DNA, the chromatin is extended (called euchromatin), and the DNA can be accessed and these genes can be expressed.

It was previously believed that embryonic stem cells had lots of open chromatin (euchromatin), but this was not a proven theory. A study on stem cells and gene expression (Efroni et al., 2008) reported that, globally but at low-levels, more genes in ESCs are actively turned into protein than are in differentiated cells. Additionally, proteins involved in changing chromatin structure and transcribing genes were expressed at relatively high levels in ESCs too. When the function of some proteins involved in chromatin-remodeling was changed, normal ESC proliferation and differentiation was also affected. Overall, Efroni et al. suggested that the differentiation of ESCs may correlate with a loss of active transcription of the cell genome.

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Embryonic Stem Cells, Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , ,

Human Embryonic Stem Cells: A Decade of Discovery, Controversy, and Potential

April 19th, 2009

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) recently celebrated the 10th anniversary of their discovery, and in the decade since their isolation they have possibly received more press coverage, both over their many potential applications as well as ethical concerns, than any other type of stem cell. In the last decade, much progress has been made in better understanding these cells and their capabilities. hESCs hold much promise not only for being cellular models of human development and function, but also for use in the field of regenerative medicine. However, due to ethical and application concerns, only recently have these cells made it to clinical trials.

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Figure 1: The Blastocyst. Human embryonic stem cells are isolated from early-stage embryos in the late blastocyst stage, about four or five days after fertilization. The blastocyst is a hollow sphere made of approximately 150 cells and contains three distinct areas: the trophoblast, which is the surrounding outer layer that later becomes the placenta, the blastocoel, which is a fluid-filled cavity within the blastocyst, and the inner cell mass, also known as the embryoblast, which can become the embryo proper, or fetus, and is where hESCs are isolated from.

Though human embryonic stem cells were isolated just over a decade ago, embryonic stem cells were successfully isolated from other animals before this. Nearly 30 years ago, two groups independently reported the isolation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) (Martin, 1981; Evans and Kaufman, 1981). The mESCs were isolated from early-stage mouse embryos, approximately four to six days post-fertilization (out of 21 days total for mouse gestation). At this point in development, the embryo is in the late blastocyst stage (see figure 1). It was not until the mid-1990s that this feat was accomplished with non-human primates by Dr. James Thomson’s group (Thomson et al., 1995). Only a few years later, embryonic stem cells isolated from humans, once again by Thomson’s group, in 1998 (Thomson et al., 1998).

It is important to understand where hESCs come from in order to understand the ethical arguments that surround them, as well as their enormous, innate biological potential. Like mESCs, hESCs are isolated from early-stage embryos that are, specifically, in the late blastocyst stage, about four or five days after fertilization. After the fertilized egg cell starts cell division, what is referred to as the “blastocyst” occurs once the cell has divided into a hollow sphere made up of approximately 150 cells (see figure 1). At this point, the embryo has not even yet been implanted in the uterus. The blastocyst contains three distinct areas: the trophoblast, which is the surrounding outer layer that later becomes the placenta, the blastocoel, which is a fluid-filled cavity within the blastocyst, and the inner cell mass, also known as the embryoblast, which can become the embryo proper, or fetus. Embryonic stem cells can be created from cells taken from the inner cell mass (Stem Cell Basics: What are embryonic stem cells?, 2009). Because these cells are taken from such an early stage in development, they have the ability to become cells of any tissue type (except for the whole embryo itself), making them pluripotent. The pluripotency of hESCs is probably the trait that contributes most to their enormous potential, both as models of cell function and human development and, potentially, for uses in regenerative medicine. Being pluripotent and seemingly unlimited in supply separates hESCs from adult stem cells, which are multipotent or unipotent, able to become a more select group of cell types, and more limited in their cellular lifespan.

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Embryonic Stem Cells , , , ,